Brazil is partly reversing looser gun rules introduced by President Jair Bolsonaro earlier this year over concerns that an increase in gun ownership could fuel rather than prevent violence.
Civilians may still own pistols and revolvers but only land owners may have rifles, according to a decree published on Wednesday.
It also introduced other changes, such as ordering that children under 14 may not practise shooting as a sport and increasing the number of restricted munitions.
Under a decree published by Bolsonaro in January, citizens were allowed to own up to four guns.
Earlier this month, the president eased restrictions on gun imports and increased the amount of ammunition a person can buy.
The new rules came under criticism from state governors, human rights organisations and part of the judiciary.
Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world with more than 51,000 people killed in 2018.
Far-right politician Bolsonaro, who was sworn in as president on Jan. 1, had pledged to arm the population in order to restore law and order.