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WhatsApp Yana Karfafa Dimokradiyya A Nigeria Amma Yana Rage Darajarta, Inji Masu Bincike Na Birtaniya Da Nijeriya

WhatsApp Yana Karfafa Dimokradiyya A Nigeria Amma Yana Rage Darajarta, Inji Masu Bincike Na Birtaniya Da Nijeriya

Sakamakon binciken da aka saki a yau, wanda masu binciken kasar Nijeriya da Birtaniya suka gabatar, ya bayyana gudunmawar da WhatsApp ya bayar a zaben 2019. Bayan ganawa da masu binciken suka yi da masu kamfen din siyasa, rahoton ya bayyana yadda WhatsApp ya taimaka wajen yaduwar labaran karya a lokacin zaben, amma kuma ya taimaka wajen bibiya da kuma damawar kowa da kowa a wasu bangarorin na siyasa.

A Cibiyar Shehu Musa Yar’Adua da ke Abuja, Nijeriya, ranar Litininin 29 ga watan Yunai, masu bincike daga Cibiyar Dimokradiyya da Ci Gaba (Center for Democracy and Development) da kuma Jami’ar Birmingham ta Birtaniya sun gabatar da sakamakon binciken da kamfanin WhatsApp ya bayar da tallafi domin gabatar da bincike kan yadda gudunmawar da WhatsApp ya bayar a zaben Nijeriya na 2019. Rahoton da aka yi wa take da WhatsApp da Zaben Nijeriya na 2019: Tattaro Al’umma da Kariya ga Kuri’a,  za a iya samunsa cikin harshen Ingilishi a nan.

WhatsApp shi ne shafin tura sakonni da ya fi shahara a kasashen Afirka guda 40, ciki har da Nijeriya, saboda araha, rufaffen sako (encrypted message) da kuma yiwuwar tura sakonni ga daidaiku da kuma gamayya. Manufar binciken shi ne gano yadda manhajar WhatsApp ke iya tasiri wajen zaben Nijeriya, da kuma duniya baki daya, musamman ta bangaren yada bayanai da labaran karya da ake yi wa lakabi da “fake news” a turance.  

Dakta Jonathan Fisher (Jami’ar Birmingham) shi ne ya jagoranci binciken da ya kunshi Idayat Hassan (Cibiyar Dimokradiyya da Ci Gaga), Jamie Hitchen (mai bincke mai zaman kansa) da kuma Farfesa Nic Cheeseman (Jami’ar Birmingham). Binciken ya kunshi tattaunawa da mutane 50 da suka hada da masu kamfen din siyasa, yan gwagwarmaya, masana da kwararru a garuruwan Abuja, Oyo da Kano; tambayoyi ga mutane 1,005 da kuma ganawa da mutane a jihohin Oyo da Kano.

Ta hanyar kula da zabukan gwamnoni a jihohin Oyo da Kano, masu binciken sun gano cewa:

Tsare-Tsare: Amfani da WhatsApp yana ta zama tsararre tun daga matakin shugaban kasa. Ta hanyar shirya shafukan gamayya na WhatsApp, “Buhari New Media Centre (BNMC)” da “Atikulated Youth Force (AYF)”, sun tsara yadda suke tura sakonni ga shafukansu da yake dauke da mambobi 256 da suke watsawa ga dubunnan mutane. Daga kasa kuwa, mafi yawan aiyukan da ake yi ban tsararre ba ne. Wannan shi ya sanya jam’iyyu basu da damar kula da yadda bayanai suke fita a kananun matakai, saboda babu hannunsu a ciki. Dr. Fisher yana cewa :

“Bincikenmu ya nuna cewa yayin da WhatsApp yake karfafa alakar mai goyon baya da wanda ake goyawa baya, yana kuma karfafa da fito da wadanda ba a sansu da taka rawa a filin siyasa ba a baya – musamman matasan da suke amfani da fasahar zamani”

Gundarin Sakonni: Ana yada abubuwa daban-daban a shafin WhatsaApp da tasirinsu yake da alaka ga wanda aka turawa da kuma yadda aka bayyana masa su. Idayat Hassan ta ce:

“Tsari, yanayi da majiya da kuma gundarin sakon da aka yada ko aka karba a WhatsApp suna da matukar tasiri wajen yaduwarsu da kuma yadda za a iya Imani da su… hotuna da bidiyoyi ma na ta ci gaba da zama masu tasiri.”

Gamayyar Juna: Kungiyoyin dake kan WhatsApp da wadanda basa kai duk suna haduwa domin karfafar juna wajen gina kansu ta hanyoyin da suke da amfani wajen ganewa. Saboda haka, a mafi yawan lokaci WhatsApp yana taimakawa wajen karfafa muhimmanci da kuma tasirin da kungiyoyin suke da shi ne tun da can a siyasar Nijeriya. Jamie Hitchen ya ce :

“Alakar da ke gudana tsakanin sakonnin da ake yadawa a WhatsApp da kuma abubuwan da ke faruwa a bayan fage tana da matukar muhimmanci a duniyar fasahar,.. kuma ta kawo sauyi wajen kamfen din siyasa”

Tasiri: An yi amfani da WhatsApp wajen yada bayanan karya, hakana maganinta. Daya daga cikin manyan labaran da aka yada a WhatsApp shi ne cewar Shugaba Buhari yam utu an canja shi da wani  mai kama da shi mai suna Jibrin daga Sudan. Hakana yan takarkaru sun yi amfani da WhatsApp wajen bayyanawa jama’a bayanan karyar da ake tunkararsu da shi don su kiyaye. Farfesa Cheeseman ya ce :

“Shafukan sada zumunta suna tsoratar da  dimokradiyya kuma suna karfafata. An yi amfani da WhatsApp wajen yada labaran karya a wani bangaren, binciken hakikar gaskiya da kuma duba yanayin zabuka a daya bangaren. Kalubalen shi ne a rage hanyoyin matsalolin ba tare da an rage yadda shafukan sada zumunta ke taimakawa wajen bibiya da kuma shiga harkokin siyasa ba.”

Binciken ya bayyana cewa, musamman a matakin da ba na kasa ba,  yayin da WhatsApp yake bawa yan takarkaru dama a siyasa, shafukan sada zumunta kawai basu isa su bayar da nasarar zabe ba. Maimakon haka, abin da ya fi shi ne dan takara ya zama shugaba na gari ga al’umma da yake kusa da ita a koda yaushe. Wannan yana nufin cewa kamfen din siyasar dan takara daga tushe shi ne akan gaba a wajen tafiyar da abubuwa dai-dai. Don haka, WhatsApp ya ci gabantar da siyasa ne kawai amma bai juyata ba.

Binciken ya bayyana wasu shawarwari na kusa da na nesa da ya kamata a dauka kamar haka:

Na kusa shi ne, a bawa mutane damar fita daga gamayyar WhatsApp (groups) da kuma tura rahoton bayanan karya; a bawa masu kula da shafuka damar saka sharudai; a koyawa wadanda suke da tasiri wajen al’umma ilimin fasahar zamani (Digital Literacy) kuma a karfafa yadda  WhatsApp kan iya gane illolin amfani da manhajar ta yadda bata dace ba ta hanyar bude ofisohi a Afirka.

Na nesa shi ne, gwamnatin jihohi da ta kasa su zuba jari wajen ilimantar da a al’umma ilimin fasahar zamani don ya zama a tsarin koyarwa na kasa, kuma kamfen din zabuka su fito da tsare-tsaren da zai kula da yadda ake amfani da shafukan sada zumunta a zabuka masu zuwa. Kula da bayanai a Intanet da kare hakkokin jama’a a Nijeriya da ma wasu kasashen ya kamata a bawa muhimmanci sosai.

Domin karin bayani a tuntubi:

Media Manager (University of Birmingham): Hasan Salim Patel. Email: h.s.patel@bham.ac.uk Telephone:  +44 (0) 121 415 8134 / +44(0)7580 744943

Nigeria Contact (Centre for Democracy and Development): Idayat Hassan Email: ihassan@cddwestafrica.org Telephone/WhatsApp: +234 (0) 703 369 0566

UK Contact (University of Birmingham): Dr Jonathan Fisher Email: j.fisher@bham.ac.uk Telephone/WhatsApp: +44 (0) 7894 452 788